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This report focuses on the broadband communications services market in Turkey. As Turkey moves towards telecom privatization and market liberalization, the market would likely to double in size to USD 16 billion by 2010.

The forces that will shape the market over the next three years will undoubtedly be the full liberalization of the telecommunication services sector, issuance of new licenses for the private sector, privatization of Turk Telekom and implementation of EU telecom directives as part of Turkey's potential accession to the European Union.

Turkey has a large telecommunications market, 5th largest in Europe and 12th largest in the world.  The market size is estimated to be over USD 9 billion and expected to grow to USD 16 billion in 2010.  Broadband communications services market will play an important role in the market growth over the next several years.

Turk Telekom launched the ADSL services in 2003 and facilitated 275,000 ports.  Considering the increasing demand, the number of ports required by the end of 2004 is one million and by the end of 2005 two million.  Distance education, faster Internet connection, digital TV broadcasting and other business services will play a primary role in the development of the market.

Many Turkish companies are open to partnership with the U.S. companies in Turkey and in the region.  U.S. companies may receive competition from European companies, especially Japanese, Italian, British, French and German companies.



Turkey, with its 70 million population and a potential for economic growth, will be a major market for all kinds of telecommunications services.  Full liberalization of the Turkish telecommunications market, which has already started, communication to/from Turkey from/to Turkish populations living in Germany and other parts of Europe, faster Internet requirements of the business sector, distance education development, digital TV broadcasting and new business and marketing services will be the important factors for the growth in the broadband wire-line and wireless communications sector for the next 5-10 years.  Turkey's unique location at the crossroads between Europe and Asia makes Turkey the likely communications hub for the region.  Turkey is already a trading center and a leading business partner in the Balkans, Caucasus, Central Asia and the Middle East.

Turkey has a large telecommunications and IT market.  Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) revenues will approximately be USD 5 billion in 2004 and expected to grow to USD 9 billion by 2010.  Revenues from mobile services will approximately be USD 4 billion in 2004 and expected to grow to USD 7 billion in 2010.  Therefore, the total telecommunications market is estimated to be over USD 9 billion by the end of 2004 and expected to grow to USD 16 billion by 2010. 

Turkey had 19 million PSTN subscribers in 2002, reaching approximately a 30 % penetration rate, which is expected to exceed 25 million by the end of 2005 and 30 million in 2010.  The reason for this big increase will be entrance of new telephone operators into the market.  The broadband wire-line and wireless communication services market will play an important role in the market growth as well.  Wireless broadband applications will also increase the revenues of the mobile operators.  Turkey approximately has 29 million mobile subscribers, reaching approximately a 40 % penetration rate, and estimated to have over 45 million mobile subscribers by 2010.

The frequency band 3.5 to 3.7 GHz has been assigned to Turk Telekom, which uses this band to provide wireless telephony in rural areas.  The frequency band 24.5 to 26.5 GHz has been allocated for LMDS and is available to be assigned for licensed operators.  Telecommunications authority is planning to issue licenses for this band.  Unlicensed bands of 2.4 and 5.5ghz can be used for only individual purposes and in the individual telecommunications networks.

There is no special tariff for broadband fixed wireless interconnection.  However, all telecommunications operators are subject to the newly published access and interconnection ordinance, which makes all determined operators, be obliged to interconnect, based on cost-based charging. Subject ordinance is available at www.tk.gov.tr.

As per the Telecommunications Law No. 4502, Turkey is moving forward with the full liberalization of the telecommunications services market.  On 17 May 2004, the independent regulatory body, the Telecommunications Authority, issued licenses for 27 private companies to provide domestic and international long distance telecommunications services.  7 companies received type A license, 13 received B type license and 7 received C type license.  Type A licensees will be able to perform the full range of telecom services.  The next step is local loop unbundling.

Most of these companies will probably start their operations with Voice over IP (VoIP) and wide band applications.  Some companies have already established facilities for data and satellite communications services as well as digital TV.  Any company, which would like to be active in the telecom sector, needs to obtain a license from the Telecommunications Authority.

Turk Telekom currently has revenue sharing agreements with approximately 10 regional firms to provide analog type cable-TV services.  Cable-TV subscribers reached one million at the end of 2002.  However, Turkish Government is planning to ask these cable-TV companies, which has the concession rights for the 10 regions, to apply for a license on the condition to upgrade their network to digital and provide broadband services.  The market estimation is rather large when considered that 14 million TV homes exist in Turkey.  Most of these companies will require foreign partners who can also provide financing required for technical upgrading and the expansion of the market. 

Turk Telekom launched the ADSL services in 2003 and facilitated 275,000 ports.  Considering the increasing demand, the number of ports required by the end of 2004 is one million and by the end of 2005 two million.  Turkish Government asked Turk Telekom, as part of the liberalization to deploy some of its ADSL capacity to the private sector Internet Service Providers (ISPs).  Turk Telekoms ADSL subscriber target is on million and plans to have a capacity of two million ports.  ADSL will allow video applications as well as data services, Internet connection.  DSL will increase the revenues of the telecommunications market in Turkey.

Turkey currently has approximately 4.5 million Internet subscribers.  Distance education, faster Internet connection, digital TV broadcasting and other business services will play a primary role in the development of the market. 

Depending on the market conditions, the Telecom Authority may issue a tender for the license of third generation GSM (3G or UMTS) services.  Preliminary process started with participation of regulators, operators, manufacturers and distributors in the National UMTS Coordination Committee in 2002.  The other new application will be electronic signature.

Turk Telekom (www.telekom.gov.tr) has a fixed line subscriber number of almost 19 million.  It has a high digitalization rate (digitalization is almost 100 percent in switches and 96 percent of its transmission lines).  The fixed line density is approximately 30 percent.  Turk Telekom also has the only Internet backbone structure of Turkey named as TTnet.  More than 50 private Internet service providers are using this backbone.

Turk Telekom's revenues including mobile and satellite communications were approximately USD 6.5 billion and made a profit of over USD 1 billion in 2003.  Turk Telekom is estimated to be 13th largest telecom company in the world.  Turk Telekom owns and operates three satellites.  However, Turkish Government will soon separate satellite communications from Turk Telekom and establish a new company for that purpose.  Turkish Parliament is currently discussing a draft law, which will enable selling over 51 % of Turk Telekom to foreign companies.

Turkey has three cellular service operators, Turkcell, Telsim and TT-TIM (merger of Aria and Aycell).  The brand names of Aria and Aycell still exist and the merger made no difference to the subscribers.  Turkcell dominates the mobile communications market over 19 million subscribers.  Telsim's subscriber estimate is over 6 million.  Aria and Aycell has over 4 million subscribers.  Turkcell and Telsim operate at 900 MHz GSM systems.  Aria and Aycell operates at 1800 MHz GSM frequency.

Regulatory Framework

Wireless and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations, prepared for the purpose of adaptation of European Parliament and Councils No. 1999/5/EC R&TTE directive, were published in the Official Gazette No. 25105 dated May 11, 2003.  The regulations enforce only the importation of wireless and telecommunications terminal equipment with the CE certificate from the date of May 11, 2004.  Domestically manufactured wireless and telecommunications terminal equipment will have a one-year phase-in period.  From May 11, 2005, no more equipment will be in the Turkish market without European conformity attestation-CE mark.  This regulation is applicable to wireless communications equipment at the frequency range of 9 kHz to 3000GHz; and telecommunications terminal equipment, which is or will be connected to the public telecommunications network directly or indirectly.  Turkey has also adopted the low voltage and the EMC directive for electrical products.

A new telecommunications law is currently being discussed at the Parliament, which will allow sale of more than 51 percent of the shares of Turk Telekom to foreign companies.   The new law also permits separation of satellite communications network of Turk Telekom, which will be kept as public.  It defines possibility of selling shares of communication companies (referring to Telsim), which may be under the jurisdiction Turkish Savings and Deposit Insurance Fund (TMSF), to foreign companies.  

The Telecom Authority has issued regulations related to electromagnetic field limits, price ceilings for Turk Telekom tariffs, allocation of first three digit numbers, licensing, roaming, etc.  The Authority is also working on issuing regulations for broadband and interconnection along the lines of EU directives.  Turkey being a member also follows regulations issued by ITU, ETSI, and CEPT.

The telecom laws:

Law No. 4502 dated January 27, 2000: This law established an independent regulatory body named the Telecom Authority (TA), and defined its roles and duties as well as duties of the Ministry of Transport and Communications.  TA consists of five board members having been nominated by the Minister of Transportation and Communications and appointed by the Council of Ministers.  Turkish Government plans to increase the number of board members to seven.  The TA is charged to implement and administer telecommunications regulations.  TA is responsible for issuing new telecom regulations to prevent unfair competition and continuity of telecom services.  One of TA's main responsibilities is to issue telecom licenses and plan and manage radio frequency allocation. 

Law No. 4673 dated May 12, 2001: This law mainly describes the rules and regulations to be followed in privatizing Turk Telecom.  The law specifies that the Turkish Government can privatize 99 percent of Turk Telekom (except one percent of golden share).  With this one percent, Turkish Government will have a representative from Turkish Treasury in the Board of Directors.  Turk Telekom and Turkish Postal Services Personnel will be able to buy 5 percent of the shares.  Small investors will buy 5 percent of the shares.  The law also specifies that Turkish Government must carry out a block sale first.

The full texts of these laws are available at www.tk.gov.tr in English as well as Telecommunications Regulations issued by the Telecommunications Authority.



Following is the market size estimates for this sector:

USD millions







a. Total Market Size




b. Total Local Production




c. Total Exports




d. Total Imports




e. Imports from the U.S.




Estimated Growth Rate Next 3 Years: 150 %

Note:  The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Exchange Rate used: 1$ = TL 1,500,000



Mobile subscriber revenues are lower than that of Europe.  While per capita monthly mobile subscriber revenue is USD 29-30 in Europe, it is USD 11-12 in Turkey.  One of the main reasons for less revenue is the high tax imposed on cellular revenues by the Government.  Turkey implements a 66 percent of tax on mobile communications while this figure is 20 percent in Italy and Germany, 18 percent in Greece, 23 percent in Spain, 19.6 percent in France and 17.5 percent in UK.  Depending on the improvement of the economic situation of Turkey, the Government may lower the taxes from 2005.

Introduction of broadband fixed wireless services in the cellular services will increase the revenues.

Prices for satellite communications services have gone down so much in the world that Turk Telekom's recent policy is to decrease its exposure in the satellite business. Therefore, Turk Telekom decided to separate its satellite network and services.  A new company will be established to provide satellite telecommunications services with the existing three Turkish satellites and their satellite ground stations.

On the other hand, Iraq will require satellite communications services.  Turkey is playing an important role in this business.  GlobalStar is already providing mobile satellite communications services in Northern Iraq.

U.S. firms face tough competition in Turkey.  Major competition is with the major European firms, Chinese and Korean firms.

Marketing & Business Practices:

The Turkish market is a venue where the first comer often wins the contract, a market that is potentially open to innovation (ready to pay more for more advanced products), but more often, a market where price is as important as the quality.  Personal contact and good relations with the customer are very important.  A good reputation for quality is essential.

Customers tend to look for established after sales service and maintenance.  Such after sales service can be provided through a Turkish company, which can also provide the warranty service.  Promotion through seminars, shows, fairs and factory visits are key competitive factors.

A common method of marketing is for a company to employ an extensive media advertising campaign.  Selecting and appointing dynamic agents or opening local offices with personnel who will actively pursue opportunities and maintain close contact with customers to follow up their needs are other important competitive factors.

The U.S. supplier, having calculated attractive price and financing terms, must then secure top representation.  In Turkey, personal knowledge of the market and its trends based on personal relationships is all-important.  Thus, we cannot overemphasize the importance of a strong representative or consultant.  The fact that Turkey's per capita income is approximately $4,000 per year should not obscure the fact that with the necessary inputs, Turkey is capable of virtually any level of high-tech production.

Domestic Operators: 

Land Line Operator

Turk Telekom is under a mandated privatization program.   Foreign consultants are reevaluating the value of Turk Telekom.  Previous studies showed that Turk Telekom assets are assessed at over USD 10 billion. Turk Telekom is currently increasing its revenues by continuing operating cost reductions.  Last year, Turk Telekom reduced the number of employees by 7,500 through retirement of employees.   Turk Telekoms revenues reached USD 6.5 billion in 2003 and had a profit over USD 1 billion.  Minister of Transport and Communications Mr. Binali Yildirim announced that there are 11 companies interested in the Turk Telekoms privatization.  He also commented that the new law to be passed would increase the value of Turk Telekom, as it will allow the sale of more than 51 % of Turk Telekoms shares to foreign companies.  Additional information on the privatization of Turk Telekom can be viewed at www.oib.gov.tr.

Cell Phone Operators

Cukurova Holding owns a majority of the shares of Turkcell while Finnish operator Sonera owns approximately 37 percent.  The Turkish Government currently manages Telsim, the second largest cellular operator, as the company owners were insolvent and the GOT assumed the debts of Imarbank.  Likewise, Motorola and Nokia have disputes with Telsim on Telsims alleged failure to reimburse monies owed to the two firms.  Hopefully this situation may be resolved once the shares of Telsim are sold to other parties.  Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) owns 40 percent of TT-TIM while Turk Telekom owns 40 percent and Turkiye Is Bank owns the remaining 20 percent.  TT-TIM operates both Aria and Aycell GSM cellular networks.

New Telephone Operators

Telecommunications Authority Chairman and President Omer Arasil and Minister of Transport and Communications Binali Yildirim, at a ceremony held in Ankara on 17 May 2004, announced and issued over 27 licenses to private sector companies for the domestic and international long distance telecom services.  These companies can now build their own infrastructure.  They will be able to send their telephone traffic through domestic or international operators as they like.  Every operator must pay 0.5 percent of its revenues to the Telekom Authority every year and pay the following fees for once to obtain the license:

Type A License Fee                $300,000
Type B License Fee                $135,000
Type C License Fee                $ 70,000

Note:  These amounts are not net amounts and may change depending on the foreign currency exchange rates.

Seven of these licenses were Type A licenses and were given to Borusan Telekom, Dogan Iletisim, Eser, Global Iletisim, Koc.net, Sabanci Telekom and Superonline.  Type A licensees will have the full rights of providing all types of telecommunications services.  They are obliged to provide connections to all cities in Turkey and the whole world.  Consumers will be able to select any of these licensees for their long distance calls.  If a subscriber makes a long distance call, Turk Telekom is enforced to automatically connect the subscriber to its operator.  Type A license also covers the rights of Type B and Type C license.

Thirteen licenses were issued as type B licenses and were handed over to AKCELL, Atlas On line, Deltakom, GISAD, INKO Iletisim, KAYA Telekom, L.D.T.S., MEGA, Mor-Tel, Net Iletisim, SGS Telekom, Turkonet and VIANET.  These companies will be able to give an operator number to its subscribers through which operators will be able provide long distance services to its subscribers.  This type of license also covers C type license.

Seven licenses were issued as type C licenses and were awarded to Ikon, Interkom, Isnet, Televersal, Telnet, TSM and UTH.  C type operators will provide calling card type services.



Regulatory Environment:

Turkey will try to adapt most of the European Laws in telecommunications by the end of 2004. These new regulations will probably appear at the www.tk.gov.tr web site for public debate and comment before they are issued.  Current regulations can be found in the same web site.

The Turkish Government has passed a new public procurement law last year and amended it this year.  The same law created the Public Procurement Authority (PPA) to oversee and enforce procurement regulations.   These laws and regulations can be found at the www.kik.gov.tr.

Frequency Allocation:

In allocation of the frequencies, Turkey follows European standards.  The Telecommunications Authority manages and regulates frequency allocation for telecommunications purposes.  The National Frequency plans are available at www.tk.gov.tr/index6.html, and are only available in Turkish.

For radio and TV broadcasting, the Radio and TV High Council (RTUK) allocates frequencies. The RTUK has to cooperate with the Telecom Authority in certain frequency allocations to the radio and TV broadcasters.  The Radio TV Law (No. 3984 dated April 13, 1994) specifies that foreign investors may own a maximum 20 percent share in television channels and print media.

For further information, please see www.rtuk.gov.tr/eng1y.htm.

Type Approval for Telecommunications Equipment:

In order to obtain an import license for any radio and telecommunication terminal equipment, a foreign company should appoint a local agent or a distributor in Turkey. This agent or distributor should apply to Telecommunications Authority by an application letter with the attachment of the Type Approval Certificates and test reports in accordance with the R&TTE Directive and detailed technical documents of the equipment and original proforma invoice. Telecommunications Authority does not accept direct application by a foreign company in accordance with the existing national legislation.

Tariffs & Other Customs Regulations:

On January 1, 1996, Turkey and the European Union (EU) formed a customs union.  The agreement covers industrial products and processed agricultural goods.  The Republic of Turkey adopted the EUs common external tariff (CCT), resulting in lower duties for imports from third countries, including the United States.  The union establishes zero duty rates and no quotas for non-agricultural items of EU and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) origin.  The current import regime is organized in five chapters that list more than 20,000 items, identified with 12 digit harmonized tariff system numbers.

As a result of its accession to the European Customs Union, the average duty rate for imports from the European Union and EFTA countries has dropped from approximately ten percent to zero.  For products imported from third countries, including the United States, the average duty rate has dropped from ten percent to approximately 2-4 percent.  Turkey has reserved some exempted categories for sensitive products with tariffs on these items generally much higher than the CCT.  Some agricultural goods will remain protected by steep tariffs until the next WTO round is concluded.  When the European Union applies further Uruguay Round reductions, Turkey's average rates for third countries (including the U.S.) will be lowered to 3.5 percent.

Turkey is a member of GATT/WTO and regulates its customs practices in line with GATT requirements.  In 1989, Turkey, along with the United States, converted to the new GATT Harmonized System.

Investment Incentives:

Investment incentives are available in Turkey.  Incentives usually provide customs duty exemption (zero) imposed on the investment equipment and a tax holiday until some percentage is obtained as revenue after the start-up of operation.  Incentive certificates can be obtained from the Undersecretariat of Treasury, Foreign Investment General Directorate. 

According to Turkish Government's macroeconomic policies, foreign investment plays an important role in enhancing country's competitiveness in a global market economy.  Turkish Government passed a new foreign investment law and considerably decreased the steps of establishing a foreign investment company. A much shorter period is required now to establish a company.  For further information, please look at www.investinginturkey.gov.tr.

Distribution/business practices:

The marketing of most products in Turkey is done primarily through foreign suppliers' agents or representatives.  Representatives play an essential role in the promotion and marketing of the products of the companies they represent.  Through contacts, agents can provide important, timely information not available through official sources.  In Turkey, agency/representation/distributor agreements are private contracts between agents and their foreign suppliers.  There are no unusual regulations, which govern commission rates, termination, etc.

For product distribution, one should look for medium to large size companies which are presently in the telecommunications field, and which have sales and after sales network throughout Turkey.

In government tenders, state organizations in particular attach great importance to the way proposals are prepared and to their adherence to administrative and technical specifications.  Generally, the validity of the proposal must be 3-6 months from the bid date and thus the same validity is to be given for the bid bond.  The bid bond is usually 3 percent and the performance bond is 6 percent of the contract amount.  All bonds have to be counter-guaranteed by a Turkish national bank.

The bidder must submit the bid bond together with the bid; otherwise the proposal is rejected.  All government tenders are announced in the Official Gazette, "Resmi Gazete", usually 1-1.5 months before the closing date.  Most of the time, compliance statements for administrative and technical specifications are required.  In compliance statements some counter-proposals can be made.


In some government tenders, the finance credit can be an important factor. Credit terms and conditions, i.e., providing a grace period, low interest rate, longer repayment period, can offer a decisive advantage.



The following exhibition is held annually and is appropriate for the promotion of exports to Turkey:

CeBIT Bilisim Eurasia 2004 (August 31 - September 3, 2004)

CeBIT Bilisim Eurasia 2004 is the largest and the most important ICT Trade show in the region, which covers the entire spectrum of information technology, telecommunications, software and services.  Over 800 companies exhibit the very latest integrated technology solutions, informing and influencing more than 160,000 visitors from over 65 countries.  Appealing primarily to business, CeBIT Bilisim Eurasia provides the scale, scope and quality from which professionals can make smart, well-focused and profitable decisions.  For more information on exhibiting at CeBIT Bilisim Eurasia or to register to attend, please visit www.cebitbilisim.com to register, or contact:

U.S. Commercial Service Ankara
American Embassy, 110 Ataturk Bulvari, 06100 Kavaklidere, Ankara - TURKEY
Phone: +90 (312) 455-5555 Ext. 2567
Fax: +90 (312) 467-1366

Contact: Ihsan Muderrisoglu, IT Specialist

Email: ihsan.muderrisoglu@mail.doc.gov


Serdar Cetinkaya, Telecommunications Specialist
Phone: +90 (312) 455-5555 Ext. 2570
Fax: +90 (312) 467-1366

E-mail: Serdar.Cetinkaya@mail.doc.gov

Please note that an American Pavilion will be established at the show and U.S. Department of Commerce endorsed the show as an International Buyer Program this year.



Turkish Government Contacts:

Telekomunikasyon Kurumu

(Telecommunications Authority)


Yesilirmak Sokak No. 16

06430 Demirtepe, Ankara, Turkey

Tel: [90] (312) 550-5100 

Fax: [90] (312) 550-5151


Ulastirma Bakanligi

(Ministry of Communications and Transportation)


Bahcelievler Son Durak

Emek, Ankara, Turkey

Tel: [90] (312) 215-8316

Fax: [90] (312) 212-4187

Activity: Construction of harbors, airports, and railways, establishes telecommunications policy and monitors telecom privatization.


Turk Telekom A.S. (TTAS)

(Turk Telecommunications, Inc.)


Samsun Yolu Kavsagi          

06103 Aydinlikevler, Ankara, Turkey

Tel: [90] (312) 555-1000 

Fax: [90] (312) 313-1919

Contact: Mr. Mehmet C. Ekinalan, Vice Chairman and Director General

Tel: [90] (312) 313-1121

Fax: [90] (312) 313-1919

E-mail: mehmet.ekinalan@telekom.gov.tr


Turkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu, Genel Mudurlugu (TRT)

(General Directorate of Turkish Radio and Television)


Turan Gunes Bulvari

06109 Oran, Ankara, Turkey

Tel: [90] (312) 490-4491  

Fax: [90] (312) 490-4494

Activity: Television and radio broadcasting


Privatization Committee

Privatization Administration

Huseyin Rahmi Gurpinar Caddesi, N 2

06680 Cankaya, Ankara, TURKEY

Tel: 90-312-440-0169

Fax: 90-312-438-0652

Contact:  Ms. Hande Ascili

E-mail: hascili@oib.gov.tr



HAZINE MUSTESARLIGI (Undersecretariat of Treasury)

YABANCI SERMAYE GENEL MUDURLUGU (Foreign Investment General Directorate)

Ismet Inonu Bulvari

06510 Emek, Ankara, Turkey

Tel: (90)(312) 212-8914

Fax: (90)(312) 212-8916

Contact: Ms. Melek Us, Director General, Foreign Investment

E-mail: melek.us@hazine.gov.tr



The Private Sector Contacts:


Turkcell Plaza, Mesrutiyet Caddesi, N 153

80050 Tepebasi, Istanbul

Tel: [90](212) 313-1501 or 313-1000 Ext. 153

Fax: [90](212) 292-9322

Activity: The largest cellular service provider

Contact: Baris Oney, Assistant to the CEO

E-mail: baris.oney@turkcell.com.tr


ARIA (www.aria.com.tr)

IS-TIM Telecommunications Services, Inc.

Abdi Ipekci Caddesi, No. 75

34367 Macka, Istanbul

Tel: [90](212) 460-1112

Fax: [90](212) 241-6448

E-mail: canik@mail.aria.com.tr


Relevant Associations



Telecom Operators Association

Yusuf Ata Ariak, President

Anadolu Bulvari, 11. Sokak

No. 14

06510 Sogutozu, Ankara, Turkey

Tel: [90](312) 286-8640 Ext. 301

Fax: [90](312) 287-3019

E-mail: ayusuf@ere.com.tr

Members of TELKODER: AT&T Turkiye, Comsat, Eser Telekom, GlobalStar Eurasia, Infonet, Kocnet, Miltel, Oytelnet, Sabanci Holding and Satko.


Turkish Electronics & Information Industries Association

Bagdat Caddesi, No. 477/4

81070 Suadiye, Istanbul

Tel: [90](216) 386-0909 or 302-4594

Fax: [90](216) 386-0910

Contact: Dr. Fikret Yucel, Chairman

E-mail: info@tesid.org.tr



American-Turkish Council (ATC)

1010 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Suite 1020

Washington, D.C. 20005-4905

Tel: (202) 783-0483

Fax: (202) 783-0511

Web Site: www.americanturkishcouncil.org

Email: ATCtr@aol.com

Report Date: 05/30/2004

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